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  • Ordlista engelska facktermer
  • Attrition

    1. The unpredictable and uncontrollable, but normal, reduction of work force due to resignations, retirement, sickness, or death.

    2. Loss of a material or resource due to obsolescence or spoilage.

  • Bid

    1. General: Indication of willingness to buy or sell goods or services or to undertake a task, at a specific price and within a specific timeframe.

    2. Contracting: Complete proposal (submitted in competition with other bidders) to execute specified job(s) within prescribed time, and not exceeding a proposed amount (that usually includes labor, equipment, and materials). The bid-receiving party may reject the bid, make a counter offer, or turn it into a binding contract by accepting it.

    3. Financial markets: Highest price at which prospective buyers are willing to buy commodities, foreign exchange, or securities.

  • Bond

    1. A written and signed promise to pay a certain sum of money on a certain date, or on fulfillment of a specified condition. All documented contracts and loan agreements are bonds.

    2. Construction: A three-party contract (variously called bid bond, performance bond, or surety bond) in which one party (the surety, usually a bank or insurance company) gives a guaranty to a contractor’s customer (obligee) that the contractor (obligor) will fulfill all the conditions of the contract entered into with the obligee. If the obligor fails to perform according to the terms of the contract, the surety pays a sum (agreed upon in the contract and called liquidated damages) to the customer as compensation. A surety bond is not an insurance policy and, if cashed by the obligee, its amount is recovered by the surety from the obligor.

    3. Law: (1) An appeal bond deposited by a losing party to stay the execution of a lower court’s judgment until the party’s appeal against it is decided by a higher court.
    (2) A bail bond deposited by an accused as a guaranty of his or her appearance in the court when called.
    (3) A judicial bond deposited by a litigant to indemnify the opposing judicial or governmental body from any loss arising due to the legal proceeding.

    4. Securities: A debt instrument that certifies a contract between the borrower (bond issuer) and the lender (bondholder) as spelled out in the bond indenture. The issuer (company, government, municipality) pledges to pay the loan principal (par value of the bond) to the bondholder on a fixed date (maturity date) as well as a fixed rate of interest for the life of the bond.

    Alternatively, some bonds are sold at a price lower than their par value in lieu of the periodic interest. On maturity the full par value is paid to the bondholder. Bonds are issued in multiples of $1,000, usually for periods of five to twenty years, but some government bonds are issued for only 90 days. Most bonds are negotiable, and are freely traded over stock exchanges. Their market price depends mainly on the rating awarded by bond rating agencies on the basis of issuer’s reputation and financial strength. Investment in bonds offers two advantages:
    (1) known amount of interest income and, unlike other securities,
    (2) considerable pressure on the company to pay because the penalties for default are drastic. The major disadvantage is that the amount of income is fixed and may be eroded by inflation. Companies use bonds to finance acquisitions or capital investments. Governments use bonds to keep their election promises, fund long-term capital projects, or to raise money for special situations, such as natural calamities or war.

    5. Commerce: A bank guaranty posted by an importer for an immediate release of landed goods (with total value not exceeding the amount of bank guaranty) without payment of customs duties and taxes. The bond allows a fixed period during which the importer must submit the required documents and pay the assessed duties and taxes.

  • Cash flow

    Incomings and outgoings of cash, representing the operating activities of an organization. In accounting, cash flow is the difference in amount of cash available at the beginning of a period (opening balance) and the amount at the end of that period (closing balance). It is called positive if the closing balance is higher than the opening balance, otherwise called negative.

    Cash flow is increased by
    (1) selling more goods or services,
    (2) selling an asset,
    (3) reducing costs,
    (4) increasing the selling price,
    (5) collecting faster,
    (6) paying slower,
    (7) bringing in more equity, or
    (8) taking a loan.

    The level of cash flow is not necessarily a good measure of performance, and vice versa: high levels of cash flow do not necessarily mean high or even any profit; and high levels of profit do not automatically translate into high or even positive cash flow.

  • Checks and balances

    1. Corporate: Internal control mechanism that guards against fraud and errors due to omission. In a system with checks and balances, the authority to make a decision, and the associated responsibility to verify its proper execution, is distributed among different departments. These department are kept logically and physically apart, and no one department can complete a transaction all on its own. For example, the purchasing department orders goods, the stores-department receives and compares them with the respective purchase orders, the quality assurance department inspects and verifies their quality, the accounts department verifies the invoice amount, and only then the comptroller authorizes the payment for the purchase. This process emphasizes interdependence without interference, and creates a data trail or paper trail for auditing.

    2. Governmental: Extension of the separation of powers doctrine, under which each branch of a government can (if necessary) counter the actions or decisions of the other branches. This arrangement ensures transparency, and prevents domination of the government by any branch.

  • Collateral

    1. Secondary, subordinate, or supplementary item accompanying a primary item.

    2. Specific asset (such as land or building) pledged as a secondary (and subordinate) security by a borrower or guarantor. The principal security is usually the borrower’s personal guaranty, or the cash flow of a business. Except for highly creditworthy customers (who can get loans against only their signatures) lenders always demand a collateral if the primary security is not considered to be reliable or sufficient enough to recover the loan in case of a default. A lien is created when the collateral is registered in the public records office, giving the registered lender priority over other lenders on the same asset or property. Lenders have the legal right to seize and sell a collateral if the borrower cannot pay back the loan as agreed. Sometimes the asset being financed (such as accounts receivable, inventory, machinery) is itself used as a collateral; in home mortgages the property being bought serves as a collateral.

  • Commodity

    A reasonably homogeneous good or material, bought and sold freely as an article of commerce. Commodities include agricultural products, fuels, and metals and are traded in bulk on a commodity exchange or spot market.

  • Compliance

    Certification or confirmation that the doer of an action (such as the writer of an audit report), or the manufacturer or supplier of a product, meets the requirements of accepted practices, legislation, prescribed rules and regulations, specified standards, or the terms of a contract.

  • Corporation

    1. Firm that meets certain legal requirements to be recognized as having a legal existence, as an entity separate and distinct from its owners. Corporations are owned by their stockholders (shareholders) who share in profits and losses generated through the firm’s operations, and have three distinct characteristics

    (1) Legal existence: a firm can (like a person) buy, sell, own, enter into a contract, and sue other persons and firms, and be sued by them. It can do good and be rewarded, and can commit offence and be punished.

    (2) Limited liability: a firm and its owners are limited in their liability to the creditors and other obligors only up to the resources of the firm, unless the owners give personal-guaranties. (3) Continuity of existence: a firm can live beyond the life spans and capacity of its owners, because its ownership can be transferred through a sale or gift of shares.

    2. Municipal authority of a town or city.

    3. A very large, usually diversified, firm

  • Correlation

    Degree and type of relationship between any two or more quantities (variables) in which they vary together over a period; for example, variation in the level of expenditure or savings with variation in the level of income. A positive correlation exists where the high values of one variable are associated with the high values of the other variable(s). A ‘negative correlation’ means association of high values of one with the low values of the other(s). Correlation can vary from +1 to -1. Values close to +1 indicate a high-degree of positive correlation, and values close to -1 indicate a high degree of negative correlation. Values close to zero indicate poor correlation of either kind, and 0 indicates no correlation at all. While correlation is useful in discovering possible connections between variables, it does not prove or disprove any cause-and-effect (causal) relationships between them.

  • Credit

    1. Accounting: An entry on the right-hand side of an account record in double entry bookkeeping. It has the effect of decreasing an asset or expense account, or of increasing a capital, liability, or revenue account. See also debit.

    2. Banking: Purchasing power created by banks through lending based on fractional reserve system.

    3. Commerce: An agreement based largely on trust under which goods, services, or money is exchanged against a promise to pay later. Also called commercial credit.

    4. Short form of the term letter of credit.

  • Debit

    In double-entry bookkeeping, entry on the left-hand side of an account record. It has the effect of decreasing a capital, liability, or revenue account, or of increasing an asset or expense account.

    Debit card is like a credit card, but you can only use the amount you have on your account

  • Derivative

    1. Financial markets: Contract to buy or sell an asset or exchange cash, based on a specified condition, event, occurrence, or another contract.

    2. Mathematics: Measure of the rate of change of a dependent variable with respect to an independent (explanatory) variable.

  • Diversity

    1. Accounting: Situation where different batch sizes, distribution channels, product mixes, etc., place different demands on resources due to uneven assignment of costs.

    2. HR: Feature of a mixed workforce that provides a wide range of abilities, experience, knowledge, and strengths due to its heterogeneity in age, background, ethnicity, physical abilities, political and religious beliefs, sex, and other attributes.

  • Dividend

    A share of the after-tax profit of a company, distributed to its shareholders according to the number and class of shares held by them.

    Smaller companies typically distribute dividends at the end of an accounting year, whereas larger, publicly held companies usually distribute it every quarter. The amount and timing of the dividend is decided by the board of directors, who also determine whether it is paid out of current earnings or the past earnings kept as reserve. Holders of preferred stock receive dividend at a fixed rate and are paid first. Holders of ordinary shares are entitled to receive any amount of dividend, based on the level of profit and the company’s need for cash for expansion or other purposes. Corporate legislation generally forbids payment of dividend out of anticipated but not yet received (unrealized) profit. Normally all dividend payments are taxable, often at the source.

  • Fraud

    Act or course of deception, an intentional concealment, omission, or perversion of truth, to
    (1) gain unlawful or unfair advantage,
    (2) induce another to part with some valuable item or surrender a legal right, or
    (3) inflict injury in some manner. Willful fraud is a criminal offense which calls for severe penalties, and its prosecution and punishment (like that of a murder) is not bound by the statute of limitations. However incompetence or negligence in managing a business or even a reckless waste of firm’s assets (by speculating on the stockmarket, for example) does not normally constitute a fraud. In such cases, the aggrieved party (creditors or stockholders/shareholders) must prove that at some point they were intentionally deceived on a material fact. See also statute of frauds.

  • Inflation

    A sustained, rapid increase in prices, as measured by some broad index (such as Consumer Price Index) over months or years, and mirrored in the correspondingly decreasing purchasing power of the currency. It has its worst effect on the fixed-wage earners, and is a disincentive to save.

    Three types of inflation
    There is no one single, universally accepted cause of inflation, and the modern economic theory describes three types of inflation:
    (1) Cost-push inflation is due to wage increases that cause businesses to raise prices to cover higher labor costs, which leads to demand for still higher wages (the wage-price spiral),
    (2) Demand-pull inflation results from increasing consumer demand financed by easier availability of credit;
    (3) Monetary inflation caused by the expansion in money supply (due to printing of more money by a government to cover its deficits).

  • Injunction

    Court order forbidding something from being done (prohibitory injunction), or commanding something to be done (mandatory injunction). Injunctions are issued where mere award of damages at the end of a trial would not be satisfactory or effective, or may lead to a greater harm or injustice.

    Other types of injunctions are
    (1) Interlocutory (Preliminary): granted provisionally before a trial to maintain the status quo until the court hears both sides before granting a permanent injunction.
    (2) Permanent (Perpetual): granted after the hearing of a trial.
    (3) Ex parte, granted after hearing only one party (in case of a great urgency).
    (4) Interim: granted to restrain the accused until a certain date.
    (5) Quia timet: granted to prevent a threatened wrong or injury. All injunctions are granted at the discretion of the court and their violations are punished by means of contempt of court proceedings.

  • Jurisdiction

    Power or right of a legal or political agency to exercise its authority over a person, subject matter, or territory. Jurisdiction over a person relates to the authority to try him or her as a defendant. Jurisdiction over a subject matter relates to authority derived from the country’s constitution or laws to consider a particular case. Jurisdiction over a territory relates to the geographic area over which a court has the authority to decide cases. Concurrent jurisdiction exists where two courts have simultaneous responsibility for the same case.

  • Leverage

    The ability to influence a system, or an environment, in a way that multiplies the outcome of one’s efforts without a corresponding increase in the consumption of resources. In other words, leverage is the advantageous condition of having a relatively small amount of cost yield a relatively high level of returns. See also financial leverage and operating leverage.

  • Nepotism

    Practice of appointing relatives and friends in one’s organization to positions for which outsiders might be better qualified. Despite its negative connotations, nepotism (if applied sensibly) is an important and positive practice in the startup and formative years of a firm where complete trust and willingness to work hard (for little or no immediate reward) are critical for its survival.

  • Revenue

    The income generated from sale of goods or services, or any other use of capital or assets, associated with the main operations of an organization before any costs or expenses are deducted. Revenue is shown usually as the top item in an income (profit and loss) statement from which all charges, costs, and expenses are subtracted to arrive at net income. Also called sales, or (in the UK) turnover.

  • Tax inversion

    The relocation of a company’s corporate headquarters to a different country with lower taxes. While the headquarters is relocated, the majority of the company’s operationstypically remain in the higher-tax country of origin. U.S. corporations are more likely to relocate due to high U.S. income taxes. This relocation can also been seen as an act of tax avoidance.

  • Trust

    1. Legal entity created by a party (the trustor) through which a second party (the trustee) holds the right to manage the trustor’s assets or property for the benefit of a third party (the beneficiary).

    The four main types of trusts are:
    (1) Living: trust created by the trustor while he or she is alive.
    (2) Testamentary: trust established through a will and which comes into effect (is created) when the trustor dies.
    (3) Revocable: trust that can be modified or terminated by the trustor after its creation.
    (4) Irrevocable: trust that cannot be modified or terminated by the trustor after its creation.

  • Annual Return

    A form which is completed every year by a company and filed with the Registrar of Companies, containing information on such matters as the company’s registered office address, share capital, directors, shareholders and registered charges.

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  • Audit

    The examination of a set of financial statements by a professional independent auditor before they are presented to the company’s shareholders or filed with any statutory authorities

  • Bearer Shares

    Company shares which are not registered in the name of the shareholder, but issued in such a form that they belong to the person who physically holds the share certificate. The shares are transferred by simply delivering the share certificate to the new shareholder.

  • Beneficial Owner

    The person who is the ultimate legal owner of a company’s shares, where such shares are not registered directly in that person’s name but instead in the name of a nominee shareholder.

  • Beneficiary

    A person who is entitled to receive distributions of income or capital from a trust, in accordance with the provisions of the trust deed.

  • Company Nominee Secretary

    he officer of a company who is responsible for maintaining certain official records, such as information relating to the company’s share capital, directors and shareholders and for communicating with statutory bodies, such as the Registrar of Companies.

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  • Director

    A person who is responsible for managing the business affairs of a company and who is answerable to the shareholders. Some countries allow one company to act as director of another.

  • Fiduciary

    A person who has been given the power to deal with another person’s assets or affairs, in whose best interests he has a duty to act at all times. In particular, the fiduciary may not abuse his position in such a way as to achieve personal gain or profit for himself.

  • Nominee

    A person who holds assets on behalf of another person, called the beneficial owner.
    A company may also act as nominee.

  • Nominee Director

    A term of no legal standing, often used to describe the appointment of a person as director of a company, whose business simply is to accept such appointments in exchange for a fee and who typically takes a superficial interest in the company’s business activities.

  • Nominee Shareholder

    A company or person who appears as the registered shareholder in a company but who holds the shares on behalf of another person, normally undisclosed, who is called the beneficial owner.

  • Offshore Financial Centre

    A location away from a person’s country of residence, where financial services are available, usually with reduced or no tax exposure.

  • Registered Agent

    An official post held in a company by a person who is authorised to receive and deal with official notices or correspondence on the company’s behalf.

  • Settlor

    The person who creates a trust by transferring assets to a trustee, to be administered for the benefit of a group of people known as beneficiaries

  • Shareholder

    A person who holds shares in a company and is therefore entitled to exercise control over the company’s affairs and to receive dividends from its profits.

  • Trustee

    The person who holds the assets belonging to a trust and who is responsible for the administration of these assets for the benefit of the trust’s beneficiaries, in accordance with the directions given by the settlor upon creation of the trust.

  • Tariff

    1. General: Published list of fares, freight charges, prices, rates, etc.

    2. Foreign trade: Popular term for import tariff and import tariff schedule.

    3. Shipping: Popular term for shipping tariff And shipping tariff schedule.

  • Recall

    1. Remembrance of what has been heard, seen, or otherwise experienced, such as that of an advertisement, commercial, or demonstration.

    2. Removal or withdrawal of a contaminated or defective good from sale by its manufacturer or producer, either voluntarily or when forced by a watchdog agency. Sometimes a good (such as a motor vehicle) is recalled after it has been sold, for rectification, exchange, or refund.

    3. Revocation of a judgment on a question of fact or a question of law.

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